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-8- It is hard to imagine a more clear-cut programme of warfare than the one expounded in that pamphlet. Contending that war is “an absolutely indispensable condition in order to gain a victory in international competition” the War Ministry of Japan praised war as the loftiest ideal of mankind. It is said in the pamphlet that “war is father of culture and mother of creation” and that “without war there is no hope of the creative development of a state.” Man-hating fascist ideology of Japanese imperialism is condensed in that pamphlet. War is declared to be the beginning and end of all public life; the biological law of nature. Four years after the events in the Halhin-Sumey area the Japanese Kwantung army unexpectedly and treacherously attacked the Mongolian People’s Republic in the Halhin-Gol area. On May 11 1939 lieutenant-general Kamatsubara, commander of the 23d Japanese division, concentrated in the Halhin-Gol area infantry, motor-vehicle and aircraft units which gained experience and distinguished themselves in the war with China. Those unites violated the frontier of the Mongolian People’s Republic in order to annihilate the border guards of