The Tokyo War Crimes Trial, U.Va.

The Tokyo War Crimes Trial

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Trial Progress

Tokyo Tribunal Weighs Charge of Illegality News Article

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Reports on the defense challenge to the validity of the tribunal by arguing that Japan did not surrender unconditionally and that therefore, the court lacks the authority to try the 28 accused Japanese war criminals. The argument was presented by lead defense counsel Iichiro Kiyose. Joseph B. Keenan presented numerous counter arguments and Sir William Webb admonished him on his lengthy replies.

Jap Schoolboys Taught to Love War, Court Told News Article

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Description: 
Reports on the testimony of Lt. Col. Donald R. Nugent (who served as the head of Gen. MacArthur's civil information and education section). Under questioning by assistant prosecutor Valentine Hammack, Nugent stated that "up to 40 per cent of a student's time in schools at Wakayama and Osaka . . . was taken up with militaristic studies." Also goes into detail regarding how the defense counsel tried to counter Nugent's testimony and trip him up. Summarizes what the prosecution hopes to achieve during the first phase of the chase, including "that Jap militarists began an organized campaign in 1922 to condition the national mind of aggressive warfare."

Tanaka Tells Second Effort to Oust Tojo News Article

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Reports on the testimony given by Maj. Gen. Ryukichi Tanaka where he stated that "he made a vigorous effort during 1944 to induce Gen. Kasushige Ugaki to head a movement to obtain control of the Japanese Government and end the war." Also refers to Tanaka's first attempt to overthrow the Tojo government. Other topics discussed include Okawa's actions in Manchuria, the Kwantung Army, and guidelines from Sir William Webb on the types of arguments that would be admissible before the tribunal.

Takes 5 Hours to Read Charge Against 26 Japs News Article

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Reports that it took Joseph B. Keenan five hours to read the 56 page document indicting the Japanese war defendants. Mentions the two motions that were brought before the court (one for dismissal of charges against Matsuoka and Okawa due to illness and one asking for the acceptance of certain facts without detailed proof). Also reports on the expressed dissatisfactions the defense counsel held regarding the tribunal.

Jap Intrigue in North China Told at Trial News Article

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Reports on the Soviet-Mongolian Protocol that was revealed in court in which "as early as November, 1934, the Soviet Union and the Mongolian Peoples' Republic had a 'gentleman's agreement' for mutual military aid supposedly to counter-act Japanese expansion in the Republic." Excerpts from the secret agreements were read into evidence. Brief news wire service reports alert readers that Martin Bormann, "Hitler's missing deputy part leader, was seen in Munich only a week ago and that a house to house search for him is going on." Also gives an update on the Nuremberg trials where assistant prosecutor Charles Dubost presented the closing argument for France and joined Great Britain in calling for the death penalty for the top Nazis on trial.

Tokyo Tribunal Rules Today on Its Jurisdiction News Article

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Reports on the upcoming ruling to be delivered by the tribunal regarding the Japanese challenge to the court's jurisdiction. Discusses Iichiro Kiyose's contention that "under terms of the Potsdam declaration, war crimes can be charged only to persons who violated international law after the outbreak of hostilities, and that the 11-nation court therefore cannot try government officials who held their posts prior to the war." Also mentions Dr. Shumei Okawa's mental condition.

Tojo Defense Head Prepares for Trial as Jap-U.S. Press Accept Indictments News Article

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Reports on the press and public's responses to the indictments presented by the prosecution before the tribunal on the previous Monday. States that the Japanese press were generally satisfied with the indictment while the American press felt that the list of suspects should be larger and include Hirohito. Quotes various individuals and their responses to the charges. Also reports that Dr. Tadashi Hanai, Japanese defense lawyer for Tojo, "condemned the Yamashita and Homma trials as 'not proper' because of the lack of good interpreters and competent Japanese lawyers." He further expressed his fears that the International Military Tribunal for the Far East would suffer from similar problems.

Show Film at Trials as Proof of Jap Military Education News Article

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Reports on the viewing of the "Critical Period in Japan" during the tribunal proceedings as supporting proof offered by the prosecution against Sadao Araki. The film was a propaganda piece used to promote militarism and imperialism prior to the war. The defense protested the viewing due to the short notice and Sir William Webb ultimately adjourned the court until Monday so that both the prosecution and defense would have time to prepare.

All War Crimes Defendants to Have Individual Counsel News Article

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Reports on the reading of the 55-count indictment against the 28 accused Japanese war criminals. The tribunal ruled that the defense had until Monday to secure and present to the court the individual attorneys assigned to each of the defendants. Also reports on the evaluations Shumei Okawa would undergo to determine his mental state. Questions over the tribunal's jurisdiction were also discussed.

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